# Optimal universal programming of unitary gates

Yuxiang Yang, Renato Renner, Giulio Chiribella

Yuxiang Yang, Renato Renner, Giulio Chiribella

**16/11/20**Published in : Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 210501

A universal quantum processor is a device that takes as input a (quantum) program, containing an encoding of an arbitrary unitary gate, and a (quantum) data register, on which the encoded gate is applied. While no perfect universal quantum processor can exist, approximate processors have been proposed in the past two decades. A fundamental open question is how the size of the smallest quantum program scales with the approximation error. Here we answer the question, proving a fundamental bound on the size of the program and designing a concrete protocol that attains the bound in the asymptotic limit. Our result is based on a connection between optimal programming and the Heisenberg limit of quantum metrology, and establishes an asymptotic equivalence between the tasks of programming, learning, and estimating unitary gates.